1837 – 1901 Queen Victoria – Loxwood in the Victorian period

Introduction

Queen Victoria, supported by her consort Prince Albert, ruled through a period of great change. The Industrial Revolution and the expansion of the British Empire changed the world around them beyond recognition.

In Loxwood The Wey and Arun Junction Canal, brought a focus on commercial activity, education for all children between the ages of 5 & 10 became Law, John Sirgood arrived in the village and through his teachings many of the poorest were helped out of poverty and as the railway network developed, people came to live in Loxwood who would have a lasting positive impact on the village.

Queen Victoria

Princess Alexandrina Victoria, daughter of the Duke of Kent and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was born at Kensington Palace, fifth in line to the throne.

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Timeline

1837

On William IV’s death in 1837, Victoria became Queen at the age of 18

1838

Charles Dickens published Oliver Twist.

The People’s Charter advocated social and political reform.

London-Birmingham railway line opened and the railway boom started.

1839

Traffic on the Wey and Arun Junction Canal reached an annual peak of 23,000 tons.

The first Grand National was run in February. The race was won by a horse named “Lottery”.

Charles Darwin published The Voyage of the Beagle, an English-language account of his travels and scientific discoveries.

Prime Minister Viscount Melbourne resigned and sparked a political crisis.

1840

Penlands was constructed around this time, at the entrance to the village replacing an ancient cottage. Penlands is now known as Linden House.

A uniform postage rate of one penny was introduced. Over the next decade after the implementation of the ‘penny post’, the volume of letters sent in Britain increased five-fold to almost 350 million a year.

1841

Sir Robert Peel formed a Conservative government.

1842

Income tax was introduced for the first time during peacetime.

1843

“A Christmas Carol”, the novel written by Charles Dickens was published.

1845

Over 1 million people died in the Irish Potato Famine and about 1 million emigrated when a disease destroyed potatoes which was the only food of the poor.

1846

Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel resigned after the Corn Laws were repealed.

1847

Wuthering Heights, the novel by Emily Brontë was published.

1848

Pond Cottage in Station Road was constructed in this year to replace a house that stood at the back of the pond which was called Pond Tree House. This was part of the properties managed by the Chapel Trustees, for the Chapel of Ease.

The Old Cottage in Spy Lane was constructed around this time.

1850

John & Hariett Sirgood arrived in Loxwood, having pushed a handcart full of Bibles and their belongings, all the way from Clapham in London.

John Sirgood started to preach to the poor farm workers and his followers became known as The Cokelers, or Dependant Brethren. Over the next 35 years, he helped to lift thousands out of poverty and helped women out of the expected life of service.

John and Harriet lodged at The Old Cottage in Spy Lane

1851

The Census for England and Wales was carried out on March 31st 1851.

The Great Exhibition in London showcased 100,000 of the most amazing objects and was staged in the ‘Crystal Palace’ which was visited by 6 million people, including Queen Victoria.

September Cottage and Appletree Cottage were constructed around this time in Pancake Lane which is now known as Station Road.

1852

The Neoclassical-style British Museum, is completed designed by Sir Robert Smirke.

1854

Britain and France declare war on Russia and the Crimean War begins.

The first Minute Book of Trustees Meetings for Loxwood Chapel was drafted. The first Meetings were held in Church Cottage.

1856

The 15th Century Chapel of Ease of St Thomas in Plaistow village was rebuilt because it had become dilapidated and the accommodation for the congregation was insufficient. The new chapel was dedicated to the Holy Trinity and was consecrated on 26th July by Bishop of Chichester.

1859

Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of Species, which proved that Natural Selection is the Mechanism of Biological Evolution.

1860

The American Civil War started.

1861

The Dependant Brethren built Spy Lane Chapel

Post Office savings scheme for ordinary people was launched.

Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, died aged 42.

1865

The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway opened near Loxwood with local stations at Baynards, Cranleigh, Rudgwick, Slinfold. The railway immediately started to attract the commercial traffic away from the canal.

1866

Dr Thornton The Vicar of Wisborough Green died.

1868

Traffic on the Wey and Arun Junction Canal had virtually ceased because the commercial freight was now using the railways.

William Gladstone becomes prime minister for the first time.

1869

Plaistow School was built and paid for by John Napper of Ifold House. John Napper was the Chairman of the Wey and Arun Junction Canal.

The Suez Canal linking the Mediterranean and the Red Sea was opened.

1870

A new law introduced secular school boards by the Liberal member of parliament WE Forster which extend opportunities for education to the children of the poor. The act permitted new school boards to be set up where existing education provision in ‘voluntary schools’, controlled by the churches, was inadequate. A substantial growth in school building resulted, particularly in urban areas. The act did not make schooling compulsory.

1871

The Wey Arun canal was abandoned and bankrupt and this had a significant negative impact on the Ifold Estate, which lost most of its annual income.

John Davies Trigge became Curate of Loxwood Chapel of Ease. John Trigge was a strong advocate of Church School teachings and believed in education for all children, regardless of their families ability to pay.

Emma Trigge and John Trigge opened the first village Sunday school in the Chapel of Ease.

Queen Victoria opened the Royal Albert Hall in London on the 29th March

1873

Queen Victoria ratified Loxwood Chapel of Ease as a Consecrated Church, and it was thereafter known as Loxwood Church.

Reverend John Davies Trigge became the first Vicar of Loxwood.

Henry Botting of Headsfoldwood Farm became the first Church Warden.

1874

A new Vicarage was built in the area now known as Vicarage Hill.

1875

Cherry Cottage was constructed next to the Hilltop Stores.

The first Ordinance Survey Map of the Country was printed and included Loxwood and the surrounding villages.

Farm Cottage was constructed along Station Road and this would become the site of Loxwood Dairy.

Loxwood Schoolhouse construction began, near the new vicarage.

1876

Alexander Graham Bell patented the Telephone.Harriet Sirgood died and was buried at Spy Lane Chapel. The service was led by John Sirgood.

1878

Loxwood Schoolhouse opened on January 7th as “Loxwood Primary School” the first village school.

1879

John Garton who was born at Garton House in Loxwood in 1829, returned in this year and held a great festival that become an annual event for the next 14 years, known as The Garton Festival. It was held on the fields behind Loxwood Place.

John Napper the former Chairman of Wey & Arun Canal died at Ifold House 3rd August.

1880

Education became compulsory for children under the age of 10. AJ Mundella introduced a bill on behalf of William Gladstone’s Liberal government which made school attendance compulsory from ages five to 10. State expenditure on education, about £1.25 million a year in 1870, rose to £4 million, and would reach £12 million by the end of Victoria’s reign.

1881

Sir William Armstrong’s home in Northumberland is the first to use electric light. The mansion created at Cragside in Rothbury by the Scottish architect Richard Norman Shaw was designed to incorporate every modern convenience. Built for the engineering magnate Sir William Armstrong, it was called ‘the palace of a modern magician’. Swan’s new electric lamps were powered by water from a local stream through a dynamo-electric generator.

1885

The Combination Stores were built by the Dependant Brethren in this year.

John Sirgood died at the Combination Stores and was buried in an unmarked grave at Spy Lane Chapel.

Rowland Plumbe designed the Woodlands Park House in Leatherhead for industrialist Frederick Carkeet Bryant, son of the founder of Bryant & May Matches, William Bryant. This was one of the first country houses to have electric lights.

1887

Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee celebrations were held throughout the Country.

1888

The responsibility for turnpike roads passed to County Councils.

1889

Lionel Leslie Constable and Emily Constable move to Ifold Manor House.

Corral & Elizabeth Farmer move to Penlands in Loxwood. Corral Farmer became a Church Warden

1892

Hannah Botting, the wife of Henry Botting died and was buried at Wisborough Green Church.

John Stinson Farmer, the father of Corral Farmer and Elizabeth Constable died at Ifold House. Rowland Plumbe was the Trustee of John Farmers estate and became involved in the village discussions for a new church.

1894

Parish councils are created The Local Government Act required all parishes with a population over 300 to elect parish councils; smaller parishes could apply to their county council to have similar status. Women could vote in parish council elections. Under the act, almost 700 urban sanitary districts were reorganised as urban districts and a similar number of rural districts were established. In Scotland, a separate local government act of 1894 replaced existing ‘parochial boards’ with elected parish councils.

John Garton died at his home in Tottenham. His house was called Loxwood House and the street in Tottenham is now named after that house.

1895

The Discovery of X-Rays German scientist Wilhem Röntgen.

Jubilee Villas were constructed by the Combination Stores around this time.

The Combination Stores were extended around this time and the front was brought forward to align with the new stops added near the village pond.

1897

Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee celebrations were held throughout the Country.

Reading Room  opened as first village meeting place. The parcel of land was donated by John Elliott the owner of Hilltop Stores. The first brick was laid by Neil Farmer the young son of Corrall and Elizabeth Farmer.

Reverend John Davies Trigg died on July 12th his funeral was held at Loxwood Church on July 15th and the Church of St Peter in Brighton.

The children of John Garton presented Loxwood Church with a Font in his memory, never to be forgotten.

Guglielmo Marconi is awarded a patent for radio communication. The Italian-born physicist Guglielmo Marconi conducted a number of communication experiments in southern Britain in 1896-1897, and the award of a patent followed his first communication across water from Lavernock Point, South Wales, to Flat Holm Island in the Bristol Channel. He established the first transatlantic signal in December 1901. His work inaugurated the ‘Wireless Age’.

The ancient Grant given in 1404 by the Bishop of Chichester Robert Reade, to build a place of worship in Loxwood was translated under the instruction of Corrall Farmer.

The Dependant Brethren constructed the row of “New Cottages” opposite Spy Lane Chapel, which was for the Elders of the Brethren.

1898

A Grand Bazaar was held at Ifold Manor to raise funds for the new Loxwood Church. Hosted by Lionel Leslie Constable and Emily Constable.

Henry Botting the Church Warden died in December and was buried at Wisborough Green Church. Maurice Botting took over as Church Warden.

1899

The top two floors of Brewhurst Mill were destroyed by a devastating fire.

1900

On Tuesday August 28th at 3.45pm the Foundation Stone was laid of New Loxwood Church by Archdeacon Francis John Mount. The church was designed by Rowland Plumbe.

1901

January 27th Queen Victoria died.

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