1760 – 1820 George III – Loxwood in the Georgian period

Introduction

George III was the third Hanoverian king of Great Britain. During his reign, Britain lost its American colonies but emerged as a leading power in Europe. He suffered from recurrent fits of madness and after 1810, his son acted as regent.

He was the first Hanoverian monarch to use English as his first language. In 1761, George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and they enjoyed a happy marriage, with 15 children.

In 1770, George appointed Lord North as his first minister. Although an effective administrator, North’s government was dominated by disagreements with the American colonists over British attempts to levy taxes on them. War began in 1775 and was prolonged in 1779, at the king’s insistence, to prevent copycat protests elsewhere. The British defeat in 1781 prompted North to resign.

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Timeline

1760

George III was the first Hanoverian monarch to use English as his first language

1761

George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and they had 15 children.

1765

Around this time The Old Cottage, which is across the road from Hall House is believed to have been constructed

1768

James Cook led an expedition on HMS ‘Endeavour’ to the South Pacific Ocean, where Cook circumnavigated New Zealand and charted the east coast of Australia. His team of botanists and scientists brought back to England many important specimens and much scientific information.

1770

Around this time it is believed the old Loxwood Stores may have been constructed as a warehouse for the Drovers Arms Inn, which is now known as Hall House.

1771

Britains first Cotton Mill opened at Cromford, Derbyshire by inventor Richard Arkwright. This was a significant step towards the automation of labour-intensive industries and heralded the beginning of the ‘Factory Age’ in Britain.

1775

The American War of Independence started. About 15 months after the outbreak of war, colonial leader Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, which argued that the goals of the United States of America were ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’. In September 1783, the Treaty of Paris formally ended the war.

1787

Newbridge Wharf opened Arun navigation to Littlehampton.

1788

The first edition of The Times was published

1791

In early June Samuel Grimm painted  Drungewick Manor House.

Samuel Grimm also painted Loxwood chapel of ease and the painting depicts the Chapel as an aisle-less naïve, porch & Belfry, apex roof compared to old chapel at Plaistow.

The front of the chapel is shown as having some damage to the walls and H Napper reported in 1898 that sometime after 1628 the chapel was reported to have been disused and shut up. It is not known when that occurred but the damage on the walls may indicate it was around 1791.  

Samuel Grimm painted Loxwood Place, which was opposite the Chapel of Ease.

Loxwood River Bridge was rebuilt in brick 

1793

Britain went to war against France and the start of the Napoleonic War

1796

The Manor of Drungewick was vested in Middleton Onslow and on the marriage in 1796 of his son Denzil Onslow to Ann Catherine Petra daughter of Robert Edward Lord Petra, Baron of Writtle. The Manors of Loxwood and Drungewick and the Drungewick Estate and considerable land outside the Parish stood limited to Middleton Onslow for life and to Denzil Onslow and his descendant sons for life – John Buckwell.

1800

Marriage of General Denzil Onslow and Miss Lushington daughter of Sir Stephen Lushington of Wimbledon, and agin the property settled by deed in 1796 was resettled to Middletown Onslow and Denzil Onslow and his male descendants for life – John Buckwell.

1801

Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland were formally joined under the Act of Union to create the United Kingdom in 1801. The Irish parliament in Dublin was dissolved. Despite the Union, Catholics were still unable to vote at general elections or to hold parliamentary and most public offices.

The census was introduced to help the government understand the demographic layout of the country and better utilise the population in times of war. A census of England and Wales, and a separate one of Scotland, has been taken ever since on a ten-yearly basis, with the exception of 1941. In the 1801 census, information was collected on a parish basis and there were no details on individual households. It was not until the 1841 census that more detailed information was requested.

1805

In 1805, the combined fleets of France and Spain faced the Royal Navy in the last great battle of the age of sail, at Cape Trafalgar off the coast of Spain. British naval hero Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson led the daring British attack in HMS ‘Victory’, but was killed at the height of the battle. It seems likely that the French emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, had already abandoned his plans for the invasion of England, but the victory nonetheless handed Britain complete control of the seas.

 

Loxwood Chapel was painted by an unknown artist with the work held by Historic England in Swindon.

Plaistow Chapel was painted by an unknown artist with the work held by Historic England in Swindon.

1813

Construction started on the Wey and Arun Junction Canal from Newbridge to Guildford, which came through Loxwood. The canal was 23 miles long and only took 3 years to complete. Once finished the canal formed a vital link between London and the south coast.

1815

The Tory government of Robert Banks Jenkinson, Lord Liverpool, introduced the Corn Laws in a bid to protect British agriculture. Corn prices had halved following the end of the Napoleonic wars, creating a panic among farmers. The laws imposed heavy tariffs on imports of foreign grain. They were repealed in 1846.

Brewhurst Lock was constructed around this time

1816

The Wey & Arun Junction Canal opened. 

1818

Church construction plans lodged with Lambeth Palace – church plans online.

1820

Layout of the medieval chapel was drawn by John Peckham Henley, who was the designer commissioned to constructed a new chapel of ease on the old site. John Peckham was a Surveyor & Carpenter born in Arundel. It was decided to retain chancel to save costs and because the chancel was attached to the cottage via a bridge link which would have been difficult to remove and then rebuild.

George III died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820

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