George III was the third Hanoverian king of Great Britain. During his reign, Britain lost its American colonies but emerged as a leading power in Europe. He suffered from recurrent fits of madness and after 1810, his son acted as regent.
He was the first Hanoverian monarch to use English as his first language. In 1761, George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and they enjoyed a happy marriage, with 15 children.
In 1770, George appointed Lord North as his first minister. Although an effective administrator, North’s government was dominated by disagreements with the American colonists over British attempts to levy taxes on them. War began in 1775 and was prolonged in 1779, at the king’s insistence, to prevent copycat protests elsewhere. The British defeat in 1781 prompted North to resign.
In 1783, North and the prominent Whig politician Fox formed a coalition government. Their plans to reform the East India Company gave George the chance to regain popularity. He forced the bill’s defeat in Parliament, and the two resigned. In their place George appointed William Pitt the Younger. The combination of Pitt’s skill and war with France in 1793 strengthened George’s position, but disagreements over emancipation of the Catholics – Pitt was in favour and George vehemently opposed – led to Pitt’s resignation in 1801.
The American war, its political aftermath and family quarrels put great strain on George. After serious bouts of illness in 1788 – 1789 and 1801, thought now to be caused by porphyria, he became permanently deranged in 1810. The Prince of Wales (later George IV) became regent.
George remained ill until his death at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820. In 1801, under the Act of Union Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single nation – the United Kingdom. George was thus the first king of the new nation.
George III was the first Hanoverian monarch to use English as his first language
George married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and they had 15 children.
Around this time The Old Cottage, which is across the road from Hall House is believed to have been constructed
James Cook led an expedition on HMS ‘Endeavour’ to the South Pacific Ocean, where Cook circumnavigated New Zealand and charted the east coast of Australia. His team of botanists and scientists brought back to England many important specimens and much scientific information.
Around this time it is believed the old Loxwood Stores may have been constructed as a warehouse for the Drovers Arms Inn, which is now known as Hall House.
Britains first Cotton Mill opened at Cromford, Derbyshire by inventor Richard Arkwright. This was a significant step towards the automation of labour-intensive industries and heralded the beginning of the ‘Factory Age’ in Britain.
The American War of Independence started. About 15 months after the outbreak of war, colonial leader Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, which argued that the goals of the United States of America were ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’. In September 1783, the Treaty of Paris formally ended the war.
Newbridge Wharf opened Arun navigation to Littlehampton.
The first edition of The Times was published
In early June Samuel Grimm painted Drungewick Manor House.
Samuel Grimm also painted Loxwood chapel of ease and the painting depicts the Chapel as an aisle-less naïve, porch & Belfry, apex roof compared to old chapel at Plaistow.
The front of the chapel is shown as having some damage to the walls and H Napper reported in 1898 that sometime after 1628 the chapel was reported to have been disused and shut up. It is not known when that occurred but the damage on the walls may indicate it was around 1791.
Samuel Grimm painted Loxwood Place, which was opposite the Chapel of Ease.
Britain went to war against France and the start of the Napoleonic War
The Manor of Drungewick was vested in Middleton Onslow and on the marriage in 1796 of his son Denzil Onslow to Ann Catherine Petra daughter of Robert Edward Lord Petra, Baron of Writtle. The Manors of Loxwood and Drungewick and the Drungewick Estate and considerable land outside the Parish stood limited to Middleton Onslow for life and to Denzil Onslow and his descendant sons for life – John Buckwell.
Marriage of General Denzil Onslow and Miss Lushington daughter of Sir Stephen Lushington of Wimbledon, and agin the property settled by deed in 1796 was resettled to Middletown Onslow and Denzil Onslow and his male descendants for life – John Buckwell.
Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland were formally joined under the Act of Union to create the United Kingdom in 1801. The Irish parliament in Dublin was dissolved. Despite the Union, Catholics were still unable to vote at general elections or to hold parliamentary and most public offices.
The census was introduced to help the government understand the demographic layout of the country and better utilise the population in times of war. A census of England and Wales, and a separate one of Scotland, has been taken ever since on a ten-yearly basis, with the exception of 1941. In the 1801 census, information was collected on a parish basis and there were no details on individual households. It was not until the 1841 census that more detailed information was requested.
In 1805, the combined fleets of France and Spain faced the Royal Navy in the last great battle of the age of sail, at Cape Trafalgar off the coast of Spain. British naval hero Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson led the daring British attack in HMS ‘Victory’, but was killed at the height of the battle. It seems likely that the French emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, had already abandoned his plans for the invasion of England, but the victory nonetheless handed Britain complete control of the seas.
Loxwood Chapel was painted by an unknown artist with the work held by Historic England in Swindon.
Plaistow Chapel was painted by an unknown artist with the work held by Historic England in Swindon.
Construction started on the Wey and Arun Junction Canal from Newbridge to Guildford, which came through Loxwood. The canal was 23 miles long and only took 3 years to complete. Once finished the canal formed a vital link between London and the south coast.
The Tory government of Robert Banks Jenkinson, Lord Liverpool, introduced the Corn Laws in a bid to protect British agriculture. Corn prices had halved following the end of the Napoleonic wars, creating a panic among farmers. The laws imposed heavy tariffs on imports of foreign grain. They were repealed in 1846.
Church construction plans lodged with Lambeth Palace – church plans online.
Layout of the medieval chapel was drawn by John Peckham Henley, who was the designer commissioned to constructed a new chapel of ease on the old site. John Peckham was a Surveyor & Carpenter born in Arundel. It was decided to retain chancel to save costs and because the chancel was attached to the cottage via a bridge link which would have been difficult to remove and then rebuild.
George III died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820