1688 – 1702 William III & Queen Mary – Loxwood during the Restoration

Introduction

William III was the son of Charles I’s daughter, Mary and Prince William of Orange. Following political turmoil in the Netherlands during his minority, he eventually succeeded as ruler there in 1672.

The Protestant majority in England did not like King James, and he was overthrown in the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688. William landed in England (at Brixham) with a Dutch army. When William landed, James’s support melted away. James was allowed to leave for France, and William became the last person to successfully invade England by force. The events are known as the Glorious Revolution.

William and his wife Mary were created Joint Sovereign, by Act of Parliament, in February 1689.

William’s enemy was the King of France, Louis XIV, who protected and supported James in his efforts to return. In Ireland, the majority Roman Catholics were reinforced by French forces led by Jacobites. William personally led his army to victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. James fled back to France.

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Timeline

1689

William and Mary are formally proclaimed king and queen.

Parliament declared that James’s flight constituted an abdication and William and Mary were crowned joint monarchs.

James landed in Ireland in March 1689 where, he raised an army.

1690

James was defeated by William at the Battle of the Boyne in July, he died in exile in Saint-Germain in France on 16 September 1701.

1694

The Bank of England is established to manage mounting debts.

William III’s wife Mary died at the age of 32 leaving no children. William had loved his wife deeply, despite the somewhat tempestuous nature of their relationship, and was grief-stricken at her death.

1698

Thomas Savery creates the first practical steam engine, designed to pump water out of mines.

1701

The Act of Settlement placed the House of Hanover in line for the English throne.

1702

William III died and Anne acceded to the throne.

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