1625 – 1649 Charles I – Loxwood in the Stuart period

Introduction

Charles I was king of England, Scotland and Ireland, whose conflicts with parliament led to civil war and his eventual execution.

Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 James became king of England and Ireland. Three months after his accession he married Henrietta Maria of France. They had a happy marriage and left five surviving children.

There was ongoing tension with parliament over money – made worse by the costs of war abroad. In addition, Charles favoured a High Anglican form of worship, and his wife was Catholic – both made many of his subjects suspicious, particularly the Puritans. Charles dissolved parliament three times between 1625 and 1629. In 1629, he dismissed parliament and resolved to rule alone.

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Timeline

1625

Charles became King of England, Ireland and Scotland on the death of his father James I, and three months after his accession he married Henrietta Maria of France.

The Granary at Loxwood Place was built around this time using materials from an earlier building possibly dating from the 13th or 14th century.

 

Captain John Powell landed in Barbados in 1625 and claimed the island as a British Caribbean colony. He returned two years later with a group of settlers and Barbados was developed into a sugar plantation economy using at first indentured servants and then slaves captured in West Africa.

1628

Richard Tanner was appointed Curate of Loxwood Chapel of Ease. He had a wife and 13 children and consequently an undertaking was entered into, to ensure he was not a charge on the Parish. – J C Buckwell.

Writing in 1883 H Napper reported that sometime after 1628 the Chaplains house became unfit for the residence of a clergyman and the Chapel was closed. It is not known when that occurred, although it may have been around 1791, but H Napper also reported that eventually a Vicar was then authorised to hold fortnightly morning service in the Chapel of Ease and for this he was allowed by the Trustees to take the proceeds of the Chapel property and to manage it as he pleased. – H Napper 

1629

Already disillusioned with parliaments, Charles I was outraged when, on 2 March 1629, members of parliament first held the Speaker of the House down in his chair and then passed three resolutions condemning the king’s financial and religious policies. Eight days later, Charles dissolved the assembly and embarked on a period of government without parliaments, known as the ‘Personal Rule’.

Garton House was built around this time as a farmhouse which had land down to the river Lox on the west and bordered the Rudgwick road on the east.

Cherry Villa was constructed around this time, between Alameda and Box Cottages.

1637

Reverend Christopher Butler of Wisborough Green presented a silver communion chalice to the Chapel of Loxwood. It had a date of 1623 indicating when it was made. It had the following inscription : ” The gift of Christopher Butler, Vicar of Wisborough Green, given unto this Chappell of Loxwood 1637″. J C Buckwell.

1640

Desperate for money to fight the Scots, Charles I was forced to summon a new parliament – his first after 11 years of personal rule. At first, there seemed a good chance that members of parliament might be prepared to set their resentments of the king’s domestic policies aside and agree to grant him money. Yet such hopes proved illusory, and Charles was forced to dissolve the parliament within a month.

1645

Maurice Rowland was the curate of Loxwood Chapel.

1646

King Charles surrendered to the Scots, who handed him over to parliament.

1647

King Charles escaped to the Isle of Wight in 1647 and encouraged discontented Scots to invade.

1649

King Charles was found guilty for treason by radical MPs and Oliver Cromwell and executed on 30 January 1649.

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