1422 – 1461 Henry VI and medieval Loxwood

Introduction

Henry was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle. He was only nine months old when he succeeded his father, Henry V. He was crowned king of England in 1429 and, as result of his father’s successes against the French, king of France in 1431. A regency council ran England until Henry was considered old enough to rule in 1437. In 1445, he married Margaret of Anjou.

In 1453, Henry V had a mental breakdown and Richard, Duke of York, was made Protector of the Realm. Henry recovered in 1455, but civil war broke out between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions. The ensuing struggle came to be known as the Wars of the Roses. While the Duke of York was the main figure on the Yorkist side, Margaret, Henry’s queen, took charge of the Lancastrian cause.

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Timeline

1421

When Henry V died suddenly, his son Henry succeeded him when he was only 9 months old. A Regency Council ruled England until 1437 when Henry was considered old enough to rule.

Loxwood Place was a moated Manor House situated in the centre of the village opposite the chapel and the chapel may have been within the moated site. An archaeological dig of the site in 1997 found evidence of activity in the 13th century, indicating this may have been the place for the early settlers.

1426

Thomas Polton the Bishop of Chichester Died.

John Rickingdale became the Bishop of Chichester.

1429

Henry was crowned King of England at the age of eight, and became Henry VI.

1430

Simon Sydenham became the Bishop Chichester.

1431

Henry VI became King of France

The Trial of Joan of Arc. was in this year

1437

Henry VI considered old enough to rule England and France

1438

The Bishop of Chichester Simon Sydenham Died.

Richard Praty became Bishop Chichester and he held ordinations at Drungewick Manor.

Gutenberg invented the printing press (1440).

Henry VI founded Eton College

1440

Henry VI founded King’s College, Cambridge.

1441

Other colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were founded in this period.

1444

Adam Moleyns was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal one of the highest offices of state, dealing with significant Legal matters for the monarch.

1445

Richard Praty Died.

1446

Adam Moleyns was confirmed as Bishop of Chichester on the 6th February

1447

Loxwood villagers petitioned Bishop Adam Moleyns for confirmation that the Grant of 1404 Grant allowed them to build a Chapel of Ease next to the Oratory. This was more “full assurance” of the original Grant, Bishop Adam Moleynes confirmed the Grant allowed them to build the chapel, and it was built 16ft from the west end of the oratory.

The Oratory was then converted into the curates cottage and named Chapel Cottage.

It is believed the medieval oak pews in Loxwood Church of St John the Baptist, were constructed around this time, or possibly earlier. The pews were formed using an axe and adze, which was a carpenters tool that was used for shaping wood. 

King Henry VI granted Bishop Adam Moleyns License to crenelate and fortify Drungewick Manor in this year, along with a number of other manor houses in Sussex.

1450

Small spring mechanisms were developed which allowed for the manufacture a small portable clocks.

Bishop Adam Moleyns Died in Portsmouth.

1453

Reginald Peacock became the Bishop of Chichester.

Henry VI had lost the English claim to all French soil except Calais.

The Fall of Constantinople.

1455

The War of the Roses began in this year, which were a series of civil wars fought between the House of Lancaster and the House of York for control of the English throne.

Gutenberg Bible In the German town of Mainz, Johann Gutenberg, using metal type in a screw-type printing press, printed the “Gutenberg” Bible. His printing press was a step up from screw presses used in agriculture. He was the first European to use type-setting, beginning around 1439.

1459

The Bishop of Chichester Reginald Peacock Died.

John Arundel became the Bishop of Chichester.

1461

Henry VI fled into exile and Edward IV was crowned King.

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