1154 – 1399 – Loxwood in the Plantagenet period

Introduction

The Plantagenet period was dominated by three major conflicts at home and abroad.

Edward I attempted to create a British empire dominated by England, conquering Wales and pronouncing his eldest son Prince of Wales, and then attacking Scotland. Scotland was to remain elusive and retain its independence until late in the reign of the Stuart kings.

In the reign of Edward III the Hundred Years War began, a struggle between England and France. At the end of the Plantagenet period, the reign of Richard II saw the beginning of the long period of civil feuding known as the War of the Roses. For the next century, the crown would be disputed by two conflicting family strands, the Lancastrians and the Yorkists.

The period also saw the development of new social institutions and a distinctive English culture. Parliament emerged and grew, while the judicial reforms begun in the reign of Henry II were continued and completed by Edward I.

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Timeline

1154

Henry II became King of England.

1170

The first mention of Cranleigh Church of St Nicholas the nave was 36 ft long by 20 ft a similar size to Alfold Church of St Nicholas, which is nearby.

1177

The Earl of Arundel removed the English secular canons from the church of St. Nicholas at Arundel and replaced them with a small priory of four or five monks, which continued a cell to St. Martin of Séez. Of its history very little is known however its endowment eventually included the advowsons of the parish churches of Arundel, Billingshurst and Kirdford as well as lands and rents in other West Sussex parishes.

1189

Henry II died on 6 July.

Richard I became King of England, he was known as ‘The Lion Heart’.

1199

Chichester Cathedral was reconsecrated after a serious fire destroyed the Eastern end of the Cathedral.

Richard I died on 6 April 1199 in France.

John I became King of England.

1215

In May negotiations between King John and his barons failed, and civil war broke out. When the rebels seized London, John was compelled to negotiate further and, on 19 June at Runnymede on the River Thames, he accepted the baronial terms embodied in the Magna Carta, which limited royal power, ensured feudal rights and restated English law. It was the first formal document stating that the monarch was as much under the rule of law as his people, and that the rights of individuals were to be upheld even against the wishes of the sovereign.

1216

John I died in October.

Henry III became King of England when he was nine years of age.

1245

Westminster Abbey was started to be rebuilt.

1248

The first mention of Loxwood comes from a land transaction that recorded (a) Gilbert de Baseuile, son of Gilbert de Baseuile, to (b) John, son of Walter de la Punde of Loxwood 3a of free land in Billingshurst of my wood of la Sperre, lying between land of Ralph de Malcham to north, my wood of la Sperre to south, a field called Spercroft, of the fee of the Prior of Herringham to west, and the highway from Rudgwick to the new bridge to the east (this record is in the west Sussex Record Office).

1262

Rape of Arundel was divided and Rape of Chichester created.

1250

Rudgwick church was rebuilt.

1255

Preserved in Libor a Charter by which Gervase prior and master of St Nicholas of “ Arundel” and his successors, received by Gift of the land from the Prioress and Convent of Cheshunt of Drungewick Manor. Benedictine Nuns.

1256

Manor Drungewick passed to John de Clymping 14th Bishop of Chichester, who gave the estate to Chichester Cathedral. The Bishops built a house and used it occasionally as their residence. The Bishops also built a Chapel in 1256 in front of the house. The Bishops established a cattle store (staurum) – John Charles Buckwell.

1270

Dunsfold Church The Church of St Mary and All Saints was constructed and has 13th Century Pews.

1272

Henry III died on 16 November 1272. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Edward I became King of England.

1280

A land transaction recorded, Maud daughter of Ida la Scuppeltre with the consent of her husband John Cuccu to Richard de la Punde of Lokesuode of the parish of Wisberge, for his service Parcel of their curtilage west of the domus westward to Richard’s land, and between a part of their curtilage to the north and the wood of the preceptory of the New Temple of London called Lokesuode to the south, as enclosed by hedges and ditches To hold of Maud and John, paying 4d. on 20 December for all demands.

1307

King Edward I died July 7th.

Edward II became King of England.

1327

Edward II died at Berkeley Castle.

Edward III became King of England.

1377

Edward III died on 21 June 1377.

Richard II became King of England.

1395

Wycliffe Bible writings started to appear interpreting the Bible against the Roman Catholic Church. This was the start of Lollard movement and Pre-reformation period.

1396

Robert Reade was declared Bishop of Chichester at the bequest of Richard II . Durynegewyk appears to have been a favourite residence of Robert Reade and during his time ordinations, collations, admissions, exchanges and other ecclesiastical business was continually taking place. Drungewick is one mile from Loxwood. Robert Reade was the first Bishop to record his ecclesiastical work. The two diaries of Robert Reade are available in modern print.

1397

According to the dairy of Bishop Reade, in March John Okehurst, a Lawyer, paid homage to Bishop Robert Reade for land at Ham about four miles from Chichester. In 1404 a John Okehurst was recorded as one of the Petitioners who asked Bishop Roberet Reade for permission to build a place of worship in Loxwood

1399

Richard II was usurped by Henry IV and Richard died later that year at Pontefract Castle

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